Glycomacropeptide Ameliorates Indomethacin-Induced Enteropathy in Rats by Modifying Intestinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy is considered a serious and increasing clinical problem without available treatment. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid peptide derived from milk κ-casein with numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of GMP on NSAID enteropathy in rats. Enteropathy was induced by seven days oral indomethacin administration. Rats were orally GMP treated from seven days previous and during the establishment of the enteropathy model. Changes in metabolism, hematological and biochemical blood alterations, intestinal inflammation and oxidative damage were analyzed. Integrity barrier markers, macroscopic intestinal damage and survival rate were also evaluated. GMP treatment prevented anorexia and weight loss in animals. Furthermore, prophylaxis with GMP ameliorated the decline in hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels. The treatment had no therapeutic efficacy on the decrease of occludin and mucin (MUC)-2 expression in intestinal tissue. However, GMP markedly decreased neutrophil infiltration, and CXCL1, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Nitric oxide production and lipid hydroperoxide level in the small intestine were also diminished. These beneficial effects were mirrored by preventing ulcer development and increasing animal survival. These results suggest that GMP may protect against NSAID enteropathy through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.