Study Title:

Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Study Abstract

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg).
We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD).
We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 +/- 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 microIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7-2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13-463.2).
Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism.

Study Information

Kakleas K, Paschali E, Kefalas N, Fotinou A, Kanariou M, Karayianni C, Karavanaki K.
Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ups J Med Sci.
2009 January
Diabetic Clinic, B' Pediatric Department, University of Athens, P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Full Study