The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) on obesity and diabetes were examined using KK-Ay mice fed with perilla oil (P), soybean oil (S), or lard (L), and those containing 30% fish oil (PF, SF, or LF), containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA = 9.9%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA = 18.0%). Perilla oil contained the largest proportion of linolenic acid (LNA = 61.9%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans showed narrower areas of visceral fat in the abdominal cross sections of groups given fish oil (PF, SF, and LF) and lower leptin levels (p < 0.05-p < 0.001) compared with controls (P, S, and L), without significant changes in energy intake and body weight. The highest plasma n-3PUFA content (21.31 +/- 0.35%) was attained with PF. This group contained 2.6-fold more plasma DHA (p < 0.001), and expressed 2.7-fold more UCP2 mRNA in white adipose tissue (p < 0.01) than in the P group. The epididymal fat pad (p < 0.05) weighed less, and levels of blood glucose (p < 0.05) and total cholesterol (p < 0.01) were reduced in PF compared with P.
Hun CS, Hasegawa K, Kawabata T, Kato M, Shimokawa T, Kagawa Y. Increased uncoupling protein2 mRNA in white adipose tissue, and decrease in leptin, visceral fat, blood glucose, and cholesterol in KK-Ay mice fed with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in addition to linolenic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 May Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi-ken, 329-0498, Japan.