Current Perspectives on Antihypertensive Probiotics.
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Optimizing blood pressure results in an overall health outcome. Over the years, the gut microbiota has been found to play a significant role in host metabolic processes, immunity, and physiology. Dietary strategies have therefore become a target for restoring disturbed gut microbiota to treat metabolic diseases. Probiotics and their fermented products have been shown in many studies to lower blood pressure by suppressing nitrogen oxide production in microphages, reducing reactive oxygen species, and enhancing dietary calcium absorption. Other studies have shown that hypertension could be caused by many factors including hypercholesterolemia, chronic inflammation, and inconsistent modulation of the renin-angiotensin system. This review discusses the antihypertensive roles of probiotics and their fermented products via the reduction of serum cholesterol levels, anti-inflammation, and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. The ability of recombinant probiotics to reduce high blood pressure has also been discussed.