Commonly Prescribed and Over-the-Counter Drugs as Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis-Part One.
Prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been effectively used to manage many diseases and to provide symptom relief. Unfortunately, their use may also result in adverse drug reactions and unintended consequences. Proper use of these powerful agents requires understanding both their desired effects and their potential downsides. Fully understanding the unintended consequences can be challenging. Virtually all safety studies are carried out for far shorter periods of time than the actual use of these agents in the real world. Some may take years of use before their sequelae are recognized. This is especially a problem where bone health is concerned since the damage caused by years of minor disruption in function does not show up until compounded by other factors, such as andropause and menopause. This 2-part editorial covers the primary classes of drugs that require bone health monitoring and that may require alternative prescriptions or mitigation strategies. Part One covers aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, insulin sensitizers, and NSAIDs and acetaminophen. Part Two covers opioids, glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, H2 blockers, diuretics, anticoagulants, thyroid medications, and contraceptives.