Cinnamomum cassia Presl: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology
Cinnamomum cassia Presl is a tropical aromatic evergreen tree of the Lauraceae family, commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is also a traditional spice, widely used around the world. This paper summarizes the achievements of modern research on C. cassia, including the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. In addition, this review also discusses some significant issues and the potential direction of future C. cassia research. More than 160 chemicals have been separated and identified from C. cassia. The main constituents of C. cassia are terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, glycosides, etc. Modern studies have confirmed that C. cassia has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antitumour, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity, antibacterial and antiviral, cardiovascular protective, cytoprotective, neuroprotective, immunoregulatory effects, anti-tyrosinase activity and other effects. However, the modern studies of C. cassia are still not complete and more in-depth investigations need to be conducted in alimentotherapy, health product, toxicity and side effects, and more bioactive components and potential pharmacological effects need to be explored in the future.