CPE is an aqueous extract of the edible micro alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which has been shown to have immunostimulatory effects in vivo. In the present study, CPE was evaluated for an ability to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC from healthy individuals were treated ex vivo for 24 hours with 1, 10 and 100 microg/mL CPE. This resulted in a marked increase in the level of IL-10, a regulatory cytokine, and strong stimulation of the T-helper-1 (Th1) cell cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. In contrast, stimulation of representative T-helper-2 (Th2) cell cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, was minor. CPE (1, 10 or 100 microg/mL) did not cause a proliferation of human PBMC suggesting that enhanced secretion of cytokines was not secondary to an increase in cell number. We conclude that CPE stimulation of human PBMC induces a Th1-patterned cytokine response and a strong anti-inflammatory regulatory cytokine response, observations that await confirmation in vivo.
Ewart HS, Bloch O, Girouard GS, Kralovec J, Barrow CJ, Ben-Yehudah G, Suárez ER, Rapoport MJ. Stimulation of cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by an aqueous Chlorella extract. Planta Med. 2007 July Ocean Nutrition Canada Ltd., Dartmouth, NS, Canada.