Carnosine quenches the reactive carbonyl acrolein in the central nervous system and attenuates autoimmune neuroinflammation.
Methods: The abundance and localization of acrolein was investigated in inflammatory lesions of MS patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. In addition, we analysed carnosine levels and acrolein quenching by endogenous and exogenous carnosine in EAE. Finally, the therapeutic effect of exogenous carnosine was assessed in vivo (EAE) and in vitro (primary mouse microglia, macrophages, astrocytes).
Results: Acrolein was substantially increased in inflammatory lesions of MS patients and EAE mice. Levels of the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), an endogenous carbonyl quencher particularly reactive towards acrolein, and the carnosine-acrolein adduct (carnosine-propanal) were ~ twofold lower within EAE spinal cord tissue. Oral carnosine treatment augmented spinal cord carnosine levels (up to > tenfold), increased carnosine-acrolein quenching, reduced acrolein-protein adduct formation, suppressed inflammatory activity, and alleviated clinical disease severity in EAE. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that pro-inflammatory microglia/macrophages generate acrolein, which can be efficiently quenched by increasing carnosine availability, resulting in suppressed inflammatory activity. Other properties of carnosine (antioxidant, nitric oxide scavenging) may also contribute to the therapeutic effects.
Conclusions: Our results identify carbonyl (particularly acrolein) quenching by carnosine as a therapeutic strategy to counter inflammation and macromolecular damage in MS.
J Neuroinflammation. 2021 Nov 5;18(1):255. doi: 10.1186/s12974-021-02306-9. PMID: 34740381; PMCID: PMC8571880.