Can Alzheimer's Disease Be Secondary to Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Alzheimer's disease and insulin resistance are prevalent in older adults. Insulin's ability to effectively affect target tissues is diminished by IR. Hyperglycemia, higher blood pressure, elevated triglyceride levels, decreased HDL levels and central obesity are the outcomes of a condition, namely metabolic syndrome. Cognitive impairment and abnormalities of the brain have been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS), a grouping of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type-2 diabetes mellitus and its relationship to other conditions have been investigated on the assorted extent in the pair of, human and animal subjects. First, it was shown that insulin receptors are present in the brain, namely the hippocampus. Most insulin is delivered to the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier. Second, numerous research revealed that insulin impacts various neurotransmitters in a way that enhances memory and cognition. Thirdly, several pathological research has also shown that beta-amyloid plaques, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and brain shrinkage, particularly in the hippocampus, are shared brain lesions between insulin and Alzheimer's disease. In light of this, type 2 diabetes mellitus may be viewed as a liability for dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Cureus. 2022 Nov 8;14(11):e31273. doi: 10.7759/cureus.31273. PMID: 36505102; PMCID: PMC9732418.