Calcium, Vitamin D, and Fat Burning
Methods and Procedures: The intervention included a prescribed 500-kcal deficit diet in a randomized placebo-controlled calcium or dairy product intervention employing twenty-four 18 to 31-year-old (22.2 3.1 years, mean s.d.) overweight women (75.5 9.6 kg). TEM and fat oxidation were measured using respiratory gas exchange after a meal challenge, and TEE was measured by doubly labeled water. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (fat-free mass (FFM)) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were randomized into one of these three intervention groups: (i) placebo (<800 mg/day calcium intake), (ii) 900 mg/day calcium supplement; (iii) three servings of dairy products/day to achieve an additional 900 mg/day.
Results: There were no group effects observed in change in TEE; however, a group effect was observed for fat oxidation after adjusting for FFM (P = 0.02). The treatment effect was due to an increase in fat oxidation in the calcium-supplemented group of 1.5 0.6 g/h, P = 0.02. Baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was positively correlated with TEM (R = 0.31, P = 0.004), and trended toward a correlation with fat oxidation (P = 0.06), independent of group assignment. Finally, the change in log parathyroid hormone (PTH) was positively correlated with the change in trunk FM (R = 0.27, P = 0.03).
Discussion: These results support that calcium intake increases fat oxidation, but does not change TEE and that adequate vitamin D status may enhance TEM and fat oxidation.
Dorothy Teegarden, Kimberly M. White, Roseann M. Lyle, Michael B. Zemel, Marta D. Van Loan, Velimir Matkovic, Bruce A. Craig and Dale A. Schoeller.
Calcium and Dairy Product Modulation of Lipid Utilization and Energy Expenditure.
Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.