Black Raspberry (Rubuscoreanus Miquel) Promotes Browning of Preadipocytes and Inguinal White Adipose Tissue in Cold-Induced Mice. Nutrients.
The alteration of white adipose tissue (WAT) "browning", a change of white into beige fat, has been considered as a new therapeutic strategy to treat obesity. In this study, we investigated the browning effect of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) using in vitro and in vivo models. Black raspberry water extract (BRWE) treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and zebrafish. To evaluate the thermogenic activity, BRWE was orally administered for 2 weeks, and then, the mice were placed in a 4 °C environment. As a result, BRWE treatment increased rectal temperature and inguinal WAT (iWAT) thermogenesis by inducing the expression of beige fat specific markers such as PR domain zinc-finger protein 16 (PRDM16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and t-box protein 1 (TBX1) in cold-exposed mice. Furthermore, ellagic acid (EA), a constituent of BRWE, markedly promoted beige specific markers: UCP1, PGC1α, TBX1, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 in beige differentiation media (DM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings indicate that BRWE can promote beige differentiation/activation, and EA is the active compound responsible for such effect. Thus, we suggest the nature-derived agents BRWE and EA as potential agents for obesity treatment.