Bisphenol A vascular toxicity: Protective effect of Vitis vinifera (grape) seed extract and resveratrol.
The underlying mechanism of Bisphenol A (BPA)-induced vascular toxicity and the protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) and resveratrol were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to different concentrations of GSE and resveratrol. Then, BPA was added to the cells and cell viability and effects on the protein level of cell adhesion molecules were measured through MTT and western blotting. Animals were randomly divided into control, GSE (3 and 12 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), resveratrol (100 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), BPA (35 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 , gavage), BPA plus GSE (3, 6, and 12 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), BPA plus resveratrol (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ip), and BPA plus vitamin E (200 IU/kg per every other day ip). After 2 months, contractile and relaxant responses were evaluated on the isolated aorta. BPA increased the level of aorta malondialdehyde (p < 0.001) and decreased vascular responses to KCl (p < 0.01), phenylephrine (p < 0.001), and acetylcholine (p < 0.01). In HUVECs, BPA (IC50 : 220 μM) increased protein level of vascular cell adhesion molecule (p < 0.05) and cleaved capase3 (p < 0.001). GSE, resveratrol, and vitamin E cotreatment restored toxic effects of BPA in some levels. BPA vascular toxicity was attributed to lipid peroxidation and endothelial dysfunction. The protective role of GSE and resveratrol against BPA-endothelial dysfunction could be attributed to their potent antioxidant properties.
Phytother Res. 2018 Dec;32(12):2396-2407. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6175. Epub 2018 Aug 16.