Attenuation of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity by squalene in experimental rats.
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity of the normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. In this study, the protective role of squalene (SQ) towards the tissue defense system in the toxicity induced by CP (150 mg/kg b.w., twice, in 2 consecutive days) was studied in the experimental rats. The significant (P<0.05) alterations in the levels of enzymic [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR)] and non-enzymic antioxidants [total reduced glutathione (GSH), Vitamin E (Vit.E), Vitamin C (Vit.C) and ceruloplasmin] of the heart, red blood cell (RBC) hemolysate and plasma were investigated in the CP toxicity. Alterations in the levels of thiobarbutric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in heart, RBC hemolysate and plasma were also observed as a measure of lipid peroxidation (LPO). These pathological alterations due to CP administration were attenuated by the oral treatment of SQ at a dose of 0.4 ml/day/rat. These observations demonstrate the protective role of SQ towards the tissue defense system of the rats in the CP induced toxicity.