Associations between the dietary inflammatory index and urinary incontinence among women younger than 65 years
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and urinary incontinence (UI) among a representative sample of the US women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women younger than 65 years using the 1999 to 2016 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) populations. DII were calculated based on baseline dietary intake using 24-h dietary recalls. UI was determined and categorized by self-reported questions. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between DII and UI. Stratified linear regression models were applied to test for interaction in prespecified subgroup of interest. A total of 13,441 women age between 20 and 65 years were included in the final analysis. Of these participants 3230 (24.03%) complained of urgency UI, 5276 (39.25%) complained of stress UI and 2028 (15.09%) complained of mixed UI. On multivariate analysis, analysis with DII categorized as quartiles revealed significantly increase odds of urgency UI in the most pro-inflammatory quartile compared to the most anti-inflammatory quartile (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.44, P = 0.004 for trend) in full adjustment model. Similar results were observed in SUI (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.30, P = 0.021 for trend) and MUI (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, P = 0.022 for trend). More pro-inflammatory diets, as presented by higher DII scores are associated with an increased likelihood of UI in American women younger than 65 years. Further studies are needed to explore the possible physiological mechanism and evaluate the potential therapeutic implications.