Association of Increased Serum Lipopolysaccharide, But Not Microbial Dysbiosis, With Obesity-Related Osteoarthritis.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that an altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) plays a role in obesity-associated osteoarthritis (OA).
Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 92 participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 , recruited from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. OA patients (n = 50) had hand and knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grade ≥2 or arthroplasty). Controls (n = 42) had no hand OA and a K/L grade of 0-1 for the knees. Compositional analysis of stool samples was carried out by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. Alpha- and beta-diversity and differences in taxa relative abundances were determined. Blood samples were used for multiplex cytokine analysis and measures of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Germ-free mice were gavaged with patient- or control-pooled fecal samples and fed a 40% fat, high-sucrose diet for 40 weeks. Knee OA was evaluated histologically.
Results: On average, OA patients were slightly older than the controls, consisted of more women, and had a higher mean BMI, higher mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain score, and higher mean K/L grade. There were no significant differences in α- or β-diversity or genus level composition between patients and controls. Patients had higher plasma levels of osteopontin (P = 0.01) and serum LPS (P < 0.0001) compared to controls. Mice transplanted with patient or control microbiota exhibited a significant difference in α-diversity (P = 0.02) and β-diversity, but no differences in OA severity were observed.
Conclusion: The lack of differences in the gut microbiota, but increased serum LPS levels, suggest the possibility that increased intestinal permeability allowing for greater absorption of LPS, rather than a dysbiotic microbiota, may contribute to the development of OA associated with obesity.