Alzheimer's Disease, Sleep Disordered Breathing, and Microglia: Puzzling out a Common Link. Cells.
Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are strongly associated clinically, but it is unknown if they are mechanistically associated. Here, we review data covering both the cellular and molecular responses in SDB and AD with an emphasis on the overlapping neuroimmune responses in both diseases. We extensively discuss the use of animal models of both diseases and their relative utilities in modeling human disease. Data presented here from mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia indicate that microglia become more activated following exposure to hypoxia. This also supports the idea that intermittent hypoxia can activate the neuroimmune system in a manner like that seen in AD. Finally, we highlight similarities in the cellular and neuroimmune responses between SDB and AD and propose that these similarities may lead to a pathological synergy between SDB and AD.
2021 Oct 27;10(11):2907. doi: 10.3390/cells10112907. PMID: 34831129; PMCID: PMC8616348.