Study Title:

Advances in Biochemistry and Microbial Production of Squalene and Its Derivatives.

Study Abstract

Squalene is a linear triterpene formed via the MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway and is widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, and animals. Metabolically, squalene is used not only as a precursor in the synthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as sterols, hormones, and vitamins, but also as a carbon source in aerobic and anaerobic fermentation in microorganisms. Owing to the increasing roles of squalene as an antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent, the demand for this chemical is highly urgent. As a result, with the exception of traditional methods of the isolation of squalene from animals (shark liver oil) and plants, biotechnological methods using microorganisms as producers have afforded increased yield and productivity, but a reduction in progress. In this paper, we first review the biosynthetic routes of squalene and its typical derivatives, particularly the squalene synthase route. Second, typical biotechnological methods for the enhanced production of squalene using microbial cell factories are summarized and classified. Finally, the outline and discussion of the novel trend in the production of squalene with several updated events to 2015 are presented.

Study Information

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016 Mar;26(3):441-51. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1510.10039. PMID: 26643964.

Full Study