Adenosine therapy: a new approach to chronic heart failure.c heart failure.
Both the prevention and attenuation of chronic heart failure (CHF) are important issues for cardiologists. There are three different strategies to prevent patients from deleterious sequels. The first strategy is to remove the causes of CHF if possible; the second is to attenuate the events that may lead to CHF, such as myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodelling; the third is to prevent or attenuate the progression of CHF. Adenosine has a number of actions which merit it as a possible cardioprotective and therapeutic agent for CHF. Firstly, adenosine induces collateral circulation via inducing growth factors and triggering ischaemic preconditioning, both of which induce ischaemic tolerance in advance. Adenosine is also known to reduce the release of noradrenaline, production of endothelin and attenuate the activation of renin-angiotensin system all of which are believed to cause cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling. Secondly, exogenous adenosine is known to reduce the severity of ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Thirdly, adenosine is reported to counteract neurohumoral factors, i.e., cytokine systems, known to be related to the pathophysiology of CHF. Recently, we revealed that adenosine metabolism is changed in patients with CHF and increases in adenosine levels may aid to reduce the severity of CHF. Thus, there are many potential mechanisms for cardioprotection attributable to adenosine and we postulate the use of adenosine therapy will be beneficial in patients with CHF.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Nov;9(11):2519-35.