Silibinin suppresses bladder cancer cell malignancy and chemoresistance in an NF-κB signal-dependent and signal-independent manner.
Because bladder cancer (BCa) is the 9th most common malignant tumor and 13th leading cause of death due to cancer, therapeutic approaches have attracted a great deal of attention from both clinicians and BCa patients. Although the development of surgery and targeted drugs has brought new challenges for the traditional concept of BCa therapy, various types of chemotherapy remain the final treatment method for many BCa patients. However, chemoresistance inevitably appears, leading to the failure of chemotherapy. Silibinin, a polyphenolic flavonoid component isolated from the fruits or seeds of milk thistle, has been reported to play important roles in inhibiting tumor chemoresistance in breast cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Our previous study indicated that silibinin inhibited BCa progression in some mechanisms but with no conclusion of chemoresistance inhibition. Therefore, in the present study, we dissected the role of silibinin in BCa progression and chemoresistance. Our results revealed that in BCa, chemodrug-induced chemoresistance was reversed in the presence of silibinin. Further mechanistic study indicated that silibinin suppressed chemoresistance and BCa malignancy in an NF-κB-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, all of the inhibitory effects were dose‑dependent. Thus, our results provide a potential use for silibinin in BCa therapeutics.
Int J Oncol. 2017 Oct;51(4):1219-1226. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2017.4089. Epub 2017 Aug 2.