Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor and TNFa
Inflammation and oxidative stress deplete sexual performance.
Sildenafil inhibits the up-regulation of phosphodiesterase type 5 elicited with nicotine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha
To determine whether there is an association between vascular phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in cavernosal vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs), and to study the actions of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil; the pro-erectile actions of nitric oxide (NO) are reduced by PDE-5 which hydrolyses cGMP to inactive GMP, thus an up-regulation of PDE-5 and over-production of O(2)(-) derived from NOX might promote erectile dysfunction (ED).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
To study the effects of nicotine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on superoxide (O(2)(-)) production and PDE-5 expression, CVSMCs from rabbit penis were incubated with nicotine or TNF-alpha, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, sildenafil citrate, or apocynin (NADPH inhibitor) for 16 h. The expression of PDE-5 and of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (internal standard) was assessed using Western blotting. O(2)(-) was measured spectrophotometrically.
After a 16-h incubation, both nicotine (maximal at 10 microm) and TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) significantly increased O(2)(-) formation in CVSMCs; this effect was blocked by co-incubating with SOD, catalase, and sildenafil (1 microm). Apocynin also inhibited O(2)(-) formation when added after 16-h incubation with nicotine (10 microm) or TNF-alpha. PDE-5 expression was also significantly increased in CVSMCs incubated with nicotine and TNF-alpha. This effect was negated by 16-h co-incubation with SOD, catalase, apocynin, and sildenafil.
Nicotine and TNF-alpha up-regulate PDE-5 expression in CVSMCs through an a priori up-regulation of NOX and formation of O(2)(-). As PDE-5 hydrolyses cGMP, this effect might ‘blunt’ the pro-erectile actions of NO. Sildenafil inhibits O(2)(-) formation, and ‘normalizes’ PDE-5 expression. This represents a novel pathogenic mechanism underlying ED, and a novel mechanism of action of sildenafil.
Hotston MR, Jeremy JY, Bloor J, Koupparis A, Persad R, Shukla N. Sildenafil inhibits the up-regulation of phosphodiesterase type 5 elicited with nicotine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha BJU Int 2007 March 99(3):612-8.
Department of Urology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, Avon, UK.