The impact of proton pump inhibitors on the human gastrointestinal microbiome.
Potent gastric acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is common in clinical practice but may have important effects on human health that are mediated through changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. In the esophagus, PPIs change the normal bacterial milieu to decrease distal esophageal exposure to inflammatory gram-negative bacteria. In the stomach, PPIs alter the abundance and location of gastric Helicobacter pylori and other bacteria. In the small bowel, PPIs cause polymicrobial small bowel bacterial overgrowth and have been associated with the diagnosis of celiac disease. In the colon, PPIs associate with incident but not recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.