The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study
Methods: This study was conducted on 62 students aged 20‒25 yr in the city of Abadan (31 PMS cases and 31 controls). All participants completed four or more criteria according to the Utah PMS Calendar 3. Age, height, body mass index (BMI), serum Ca, Mg and vitamin D levels and a 24-hour food recall questionnaire were recorded.
Results: Vitamin D serum levels were lower than the normal range in the two groups. The odds ratios (CI 95%) of having PMS based on serum Ca and Mg concentrations were 0.81(0.67 - 0.89) and 0.86 (0.72 - 0.93), respectively. Based on serum levels, 855 of all participants showed vitamin D deficiency and more than one-third of the PMS cases were Mg deficient (P<0.05). In addition, there were signifi-cant differences in dietary intake of Ca and Mg, and potassium but not vitamin D in the two groups. Dietary intakes of Ca and Mg were quite below the recommendation in all participants.
Conclusion: Vitamin D, Ca and Mg nutritional status are compromised in PMS subjects. Because PMS is a prevalent health problem among young women, it merits more attention regarding improvement of their health and nutritional status.
Health Promot Perspect . 2015 Oct 25;5(3):225-30. doi: 10.15171/hpp.2015.027. eCollection 2015.