The Association between ADHD and Environmental Chemicals-A Scoping Review.
The role of environmental chemicals in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been of interest in recent research. This scoping review aims to summarize known or possible associations between ADHD and environmental exposures to substances selected as priority chemicals of the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU). Literature searches were performed in PubMed to identify relevant publications. Only meta-analyses and review articles were included, as they provide more extensive evidence compared to individual studies. The collected evidence indicated that lead (Pb), phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are moderately to highly associated with ADHD. Limited evidence exists for an association between ADHD and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), flame retardants, mercury (Hg), and pesticides. The evidence of association between ADHD and cadmium (Cd) and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) based on the identified reviews was low but justified further research. The methods of the individual studies included in the reviews and meta-analyses covered in the current paper varied considerably. Making precise conclusions in terms of the strength of evidence on association between certain chemicals and ADHD was not straightforward. More research is needed for stronger evidence of associations or the lack of an association between specific chemical exposures and ADHD.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Mar 1;19(5):2849. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19052849. PMID: 35270544; PMCID: PMC8910189.