S-acetyl-glutathione selectively induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells through a GSH-independent mechanism
Reduced apoptosis is associated to cancer development. Agents able to restore the programmed cell death responsiveness of cancer cells are foreseen as potential effective cancer therapies. In this study, we report that a glutathione-S-derivative, S-acetyl-glutathione (Sag), induces significant apoptosis in three human lymphoma cell lines, including Daudi, Raji and Jurkat cells while it had no or little effect on either Hut-78 lymphoma cells or the normal BT lymphocytes. We used Annexin-V FACS analysis and DNA laddering to demonstrate that Sag activated apoptosis in the three sensitive cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent-fashion. Using mercury orange staining and FACS analysis, we showed that Sag generated an intracellular GSH depletion in Daudi, Raji and Jurkat cells but not in Hut-78 or the normal BT cells. These data provide direct evidence that Sag specifically activates programmed cell death in lymphoma cells through, at least in part, a depletion of intracellular GSH rather than an increase, as previously suggested. Because of its selective effect on cancer cells, Sag appears as a promising new lymphoma cell apoptosis inducer with potential clinical value for lymphoma patients.