Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial
Methods: In a parallel, controlled, 12-week study, 79 healthy overweight subjects (all regular breakfast eaters) were randomly allocated to a group that received a PB based on Nordic foods provided ad libitum or a control group that consumed their usual breakfast. The primary outcome was plasma LDL-C. Secondary outcomes were other blood lipids, body weight, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 [TNF-R2]), and blood pressure. The PB was in accordance with national and Nordic nutrition recommendations and included oat bran porridge with low-fat milk or yogurt, bilberry or lingonberry jam, whole grain bread, low-fat spread, poultry or fatty fish, and fruit.
Results: No differences were found in LDL-C, other blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism, but SAD, plasma CRP, and TNF-R2 decreased more during PB compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the overall diet, PB increased dietary fiber and β-glucan compared with controls (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Advising a prudent breakfast for 3 months did not influence blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism but reduced markers of visceral fat and inflammation. The trial was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database (http://www.controlled-trials.com); International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 84550872.
Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;34(1):20-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 Apr 21. PMID: 24814382.