Pterocarpus Marsupium Offsets Stress of a High Fructose Diet
Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies are required to certify their efficacy and safety before clinical scenario.
Grover JK, Vats V, Yadav SS. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 July Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.