Ocular Manifestations after Receiving COVID-19 Vaccine: A Systematic Review.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound and lasting consequences since 2019. Although vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and approved under emergency use authorization, various adverse events have also been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. This review was undertaken to help clinicians recognize the possible manifestations and systemic pathogenesis, especially those related to the eye, after receiving COVID-19 vaccination. A systemic search was performed on 22 August 2021 through Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library for publications on ocular manifestations after COVID-19 vaccination. Two case-control studies/retrospective cohort studies, one cross-sectional study, three case series, sixteen case reports, two images, and seven letters were included. Ocular manifestations after receiving COVID-19 vaccines may appear on the eyelid, cornea and ocular surface, retina, uvea, nerve, and vessel. The ocular manifestations occurred up to forty-two days after vaccination, and vaccine-induced immunologic responses may be responsible. Although the incidence rate of ocular symptoms is considerably lower in the vaccinated subjects than in COVID-19 patients, physicians should be aware of the possible associations between COVID-19 vaccines and ocular symptoms for the early diagnosis and treatment of vision problems or life-threatening complications.