Mixtures of glyphosate and surfactant TN20 accelerate cell death via mitochondrial damage-induced ap
Glyphosate, a common herbicide, is not toxic under normal exposure circumstances. However, this chemical, when combined with a surfactant, is cytotoxic. In this study, the mechanism of the additive effect of glyphosate and TN-20, a common surfactant in glyphosate herbicides, was investigated. After exposure of rat H9c2 cells to glyphosate and TN-20 mixtures, following assays were performed: flow cytometry to determine the proportion of cells that underwent apoptosis and necrosis; western blotting to determine expression of mitochondrial proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax), immunological methods to evaluate translocation of cytochrome C; luminometric measurements to determine activity of caspases 3/7 and 9; and tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester assay to measure mitochondrial membrane potentials. Bcl-1 intensity decreased while Bax intensity increased with exposure to increasing TN-20 and/or glyphosate concentrations. Caspase activity increased and mitochondrial membrane potential decreased only when the cells were exposed to a mixture of both TN-20 and glyphosate, but not after exposure to either one of these compounds. The results support the possibility that mixtures of glyphosate and TN-20 aggravate mitochondrial damage and induce apoptosis and necrosis. Throughout this process, TN-20 seems to disrupt the integrity of the cellular barrier to glyphosate uptake, promoting glyphosate-mediated toxicity.
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Mixtures of glyphosate and surfactant TN20 accelerate cell death via mitochondrial damage-induced apoptosis and necrosis.
Toxicol In Vitro.