Lactobacillus GG restoration of the gliadin induced epithelial barrier disruption: the role of cellu
Administration of gliadin (1 mg/ml) to Caco-2 cells for 6 h caused a significant alteration of paracellular permeability as demonstrated by the rapid decrease in transepithelial resistance with a concomitant zonulin release. These events were followed by a significant increase in lactulose paracellular transport and a slight lowering in ZO-1 and Occludin expression without affecting Claudin-1. Besides, the single and total polyamine content increased significantly. The co-administration of viable L.GG (10(8) CFU/ml), L.GG-HK and L.GG-CM with gliadin significantly restored barrier function as demonstrated by transepithelial resistance, lactulose flux and zonulin release. Viable L.GG and L.GG-HK, but not L.GG-CM, led to a significant reduction in the single and total polyamine levels. Additionally, only the co-administration of viable L.GG with gliadin significantly increased ZO-1, Claudin-1 and Occludin gene expression compared to control cells. When Caco-2 cells treated with viable L.GG and gliadin were deprived in the polyamine content by α-Difluoromethylornithine, the expression of TJ protein mRNAs was not significantly different from that in controls or cells treated with gliadin alone.
Gliadin modifies the intestinal paracellular permeability and significantly increases the polyamine content in Caco-2 cells. Concomitant administration of L.GG is able to counteract these effects. Interestingly, the presence of cellular polyamines is necessary for this probiotic to exert its capability in restoring paracellular permeability by affecting the expression of different TJ proteins.
Lactobacillus GG restoration of the gliadin induced epithelial barrier disruption: the role of cellular polyamines