Glyphosate-induced liver and kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress, immunosuppression in Nile tilapia, but ginger showed a protection role.
The water-borne herbicides are involved in the toxicity of aquatic animals resulting in impaired health status and low productivity. Dietary medicinal herbs present a practical solution to relieve the impacts of herbicides toxicity on the performances of aquatic animals. Herein, we investigated the toxicity of commercial glyphosate-induced oxidative stress, immunosuppression, liver and kidney dysfunction, and the protective role of ginger or ginger nanoparticles in Nile tilapia. Fish were allocated into four groups: the first group presented the control without glyphosate toxicity and ginger feeding, the second group intoxicated with glyphosate at 0.6 mg/L and fed ginger free diet, the third group intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger at 2.5 g/kg, and the fourth group intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles at 2.5 g/kg. Fish were kept under the experimental conditions for four weeks, and the samples of blood and tissues were collected after 2 and 4 weeks. Markedly, fish exposed to glyphosate showed the highest ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in gills and tissues. While fish in the control and fish intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles had the lowest ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and MDA levels after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Fish fed dietary ginger had lower ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and MDA levels than the glyphosate intoxicated group after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Interestingly, fish-fed ginger nanoparticles showed lower urea and creatinine levels and higher total protein, albumin, and globulin than the glyphosate intoxicated group (P < 0.05) and similar to the control (P > 0.05). Further, fish intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles had the highest GSH, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin levels after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ginger nanoparticles are superior to the standard ginger form in enhancing the antioxidative and immune responses of Nile tilapia exposed to glyphosate.