Extraoesophageal manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux.
A variety of pulmonary and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) symptoms and disorders are considered to be extraoesophageal manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These extraoesophageal manifestations include asthma, chronic cough, laryngeal disorders, and various ENT symptoms. Recent studies have established that GORD underlies or contributes to chronic sinusitis, chronic otitis media, paroxysmal laryngospasm, excessive throat phlegm, and postnasal drip. Traditionally, management of extraoesophageal GORD manifestations relies on prolonged empiric therapy with high doses of proton pump inhibitors (PPI), followed by pH monitoring under PPI in refractory cases. Recent studies found no benefit of empiric long term high dose PPI therapy. The diagnostic yield of endoscopy in extraoesophageal GORD manifestations seems higher than previously appreciated while pH monitoring under PPI therapy has a low yield. Based on these new findings, a new management algorithm can be proposed that uses short term empiric PPI therapy and GORD investigations off PPI. Well designed controlled studies evaluating the proposed management algorithms and treatment approaches in this area are urgently needed.
Gut. 2005 Oct;54(10):1492-9.