Enrichment of coenzyme Q10 in plasma and blood cells: defense against oxidative damage.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) concentration in blood cells was analyzed by HPLC and compared to plasma concentration before, during, and after CoQ10 (3 mg/kg/day) supplementation to human probands. Lymphocyte DNA 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, was analyzed by Comet assay. Subjects supplemented with CoQ10 showed a distinct response in plasma concentrations after 14 and 28 days. Plasma levels returned to baseline values 12 weeks after treatment stopped. The plasma concentration increase did not affect erythrocyte levels. However, after CoQ10 supplementation, the platelet level increased; after supplementation stopped, the platelet level showed a delayed decrease. A positive correlation was shown between the plasma CoQ10 level and platelet and white blood cell CoQ10 levels. During CoQ10 supplementation, delayed formation of 8-OHdG in lymphocyte DNA was observed; this effect was long-lasting and could be observed even 12 weeks after supplementation stopped. Intracellular enrichment may support anti-oxidative defense mechanisms.