Study Title:

Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

Study Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach.
METHODS:
Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations.
RESULTS:
Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index.
CONCLUSIONS:
The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome.

Study Information

J Diabetes. 2017 Oct;9(10):936-946. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.12505. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Full Study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27860326