Comparing palm oil tocotrienol rich fraction with α-tocopherol supplementation on oxidative stress in healthy older adults.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound and powerful antioxidant that have been shown to protect the cell membranes against damage caused by free radicals. Human vitamin E supplementation studies are usually limited to α-tocopherol but currently tocotrienols are also available. This study aims to compare the effects of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) with α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementation on oxidative stress in healthy male and female older adults aged 50-55 years old. A total of 71 subjects both male and female aged between 50 and 55 years were divided into groups receiving placebo (n = 23), α-TF (n = 24) and TRF (n = 24) for six months. Blood was taken at baseline (month 0), 3 months and 6 months osf supplementation for determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, total DNA damage, vitamin D concentration and vitamin E isomers. α-TF supplementation reduced plasma MDA and protein carbonyl in female subjects after 3 and 6 months. TRF supplementation reduced MDA levels in both males and females as early as 3 months while DNA damage was reduced in females only at 6 months. Supplementation with α-TF and TRF increased plasma vitamin D concentration in both males and females after 6 months, but vitamin D concentration in male subjects were significantly higher compared to female subjects in TRF group. Vitamin E isomer determination showed α-TF, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol were increased in both male and female subjects. In conclusion, TRF supplementation effects were different from α-TF in reducing oxidative stress markers and vitamin D levels with a more pronounced effect in female subjects.