Systemic inflammation is associated with myocardial fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Regional or diffuse fibrosis is an early feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is related to poor prognosis. Previous studies have documented low-grade inflammation in HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between circulating inflammatory markers and myocardial fibrosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and the degree of cardiac hypertrophy in HCM patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Fifty HCM patients were recruited while 20 healthy subjects served as the control group. Seventeen inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were measured in plasma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography were used to assess cardiac phenotypes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and serum amyloid P (SAP) were significantly increased in HCM patients compared to controls. IL-6, IL-4, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were correlated with regional fibrosis while stromal cell-derived factor-1 and MCP-1 were correlated with diffuse fibrosis. Fractalkine and interferon-γ were associated with left ventricular wall thickness. The above associations remained significant in a linear regression model including age, gender, body mass index and family history. TNF-α, IL-6, SAP, MCP-1 and IL-10 were associated with parameters of diastolic dysfunction. White blood cells were also increased in HCM patients and correlated with diffuse fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. However the associations between parameters of systemic inflammation and diastolic dysfunction were weakened in the linear regression analysis.
Systemic inflammation is associated with parameters of the disease severity of HCM patients, particularly regional and diffuse fibrosis. Modifying inflammation may reduce myocardial fibrosis in HCM patients.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; diastolic dysfunction; fibrosis; systemic inflammation
Am J Transl Res. 2017 Nov 15;9(11):5063-5073. eCollection 2017.