Selective mitochondrial glutathione depletion by ethanol enhances acetaminophen toxicity in rat live
Chronic alcohol consumption may potentiate acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity through enhanced formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) via induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). However, CYP2E1 induction appears to be insufficient to explain the claimed magnitude of the interaction. We assessed the role of selective depletion of liver mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) by chronic ethanol. Rats were fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet for 10 days or 6 weeks. APAP toxicity in liver slices (% glutathione-S-transferase alpha released to the medium, GST release) and NAPQI toxicity in isolated liver mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase inactivation, SDH) from these rats were compared with pair-fed controls. Ethanol induced CYP2E1 in both the 10-day and 6-week groups by approximately 2-fold. APAP toxicity in liver slices was higher in the 6-week ethanol group than the 10-day ethanol group. Partial inhibition of NAPQI formation by CYP2E1 inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate to that of pair-fed controls abolished APAP toxicity in the 10-day ethanol group only. Ethanol selectively depleted liver mitochondrial GSH only in the 6-week group (by 52%) without altering cytosolic GSH. Significantly greater GSH loss and APAP covalent binding were observed in liver slice mitochondria of the 6-week ethanol group. Isolated mitochondria of the 6-week ethanol group were approximately 50% more susceptible to NAPQI (25-165 micromol/L) induced SDH inactivation. This increased susceptibility was reproduced in pair-fed control mitochondria pretreated with diethylmaleate. In conclusion, 10-day ethanol feeding enhances APAP toxicity through CYP2E1 induction, whereas 6-week ethanol feeding potentiates APAP hepatotoxicity by inducing CYP2E1 and selectively depleting mitochondrial GSH.
Selective mitochondrial glutathione depletion by ethanol enhances acetaminophen toxicity in rat liver Hepatology. 2002 August