Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Decelerates Rheumatoid Arthritis Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Res
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient and antioxidant and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. However, the therapeutically potential of PQQ on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been explored. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ were investigated in interleukin (IL)-1β-treated SW982 cells, a RA-like fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) injury model. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 and suppressed the production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-6 in IL-1β-treated SW982 cells. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38, and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in IL-1β-stimulated SW982 cells. To further confirm the therapeutic effects of PQQ on RA in vivo, a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was used. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of arthritic symptoms based on histopathology and clinical arthritis scores. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of RA.
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Decelerates Rheumatoid Arthritis Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Responses and Joint Destruction via Modulating NF-κB and MAPK Pathways Inflammation. 2015 August