Pterostilbene, a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, is known to have diverse pharmacologic activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, apoptosis, anti-proliferation and analgesic potential. However, the effects of pterostilbene in preventing invasion of cancer cells have not been studied. Here, we report our finding that pterostilbene significantly suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced invasion, migration and metastasis of human hepatoma cells (HepG(2) cells). Increase in the enzyme activity, protein and messenger RNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were observed in TPA-treated HepG(2) cells, and these were blocked by pterostilbene. In addition, pterostilbene can inhibit TPA-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Transient transfection experiments also showed that pterostilbene strongly inhibited TPA-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent transcriptional activity in HepG(2) cells. Moreover, pterostilbene can suppress TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and protein kinase C that are upstream of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Significant therapeutic effects were further demonstrated in vivo by treating nude mice with pterostilbene (50 and 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) after inoculation with HepG(2) cells into the tail vein. Presented data reveal that pterostilbene is a novel, effective, anti-metastatic agent that functions by downregulating MMP-9 gene expression.
Pan MH, Chiou YS, Chen WJ, Wang JM, Badmaev V, Ho CT. Pterostilbene inhibited tumor invasion via suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Pterostilbene Inhibits Liver Cancer 2009 July Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142 Hai-Chuan Road, Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan