Pterostilbene Induces Autophagy-Driven Cell Death in Bladder Cancer Cells
METHODS AND RESULTS: Autophagy occurred at an early stage and was observed through the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (the marker for autophagy) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II production. Apoptosis occurred at a later stage and was detected by Annexin V and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. PT-induced autophagy was triggered by the inhibition of active human protein kinase/the mammalian TOR/p70S6K pathway and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Inhibition of autophagy by pretreatment with 3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1, Beclin 1 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase short hairpin RNA enhanced PT-triggered apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that PT causes autophagy in cancer cells and suggests that PT could serve as a new and promising agent for the treatment of sensitive and chemoresistant bladder cancer cells.
Chen RJ, Ho CT, Wang YJ.
Pterostilbene induces autophagy and apoptosis in sensitive and chemoresistant human bladder cancer cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan.