Mildly oxidized LDL induces platelet aggregation through activation of phospholipase A2.
Native LDL and LDL oxidized under various conditions were compared in terms of their ability to activate platelets. Native LDL did not induce platelet shape change or aggregation, even at high concentrations (2 mg protein/mL). LDL was mildly oxidized with either CuSO4 (mox-LDL) or 3-(N-morpholino)sydnonimine (SIN-1-LDL). Analysis of mox-LDL and SIN-1-LDL showed a small increase of dienes (E234nm from 0.28 +/- 0.04 to 0.55 +/- 0.09, mean +/- SD) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (from 0 to 10.6 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg, mean +/- SEM), no change in apo B electrophoretic mobility, and a minor (12% to 30%) decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid content. Interestingly, this small oxidative modification of LDL dramatically changed its effect on platelets. Irreversible aggregation and secretion were induced by a threshold concentration of 0.4 mg protein/mL. In contrast, LDL thoroughly oxidized with CuSO4 (ox-LDL) did not aggregate platelets. Although mox-LDL was depleted in antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and beta-carotene, and other carotenoids), incubation of mox-LDL with exogenous alpha-tocopherol did not reverse its ability to induce platelet aggregation and secretion. Preincubation of platelets with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin or the phospholipase A2 inhibitors trifluoperazine, quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, and propranolol completely prevented platelet aggregation and secretion caused by mox-LDL or SIN-1-LDL. These results indicate that mildly oxidized LDL activates platelets through a phospholipase A2/cyclooxygenase-dependent pathway. The complete inhibition of mox-LDL-induced platelet aggregation by aspirin could contribute to its beneficial effect in cardiovascular disease.
Weidtmann A, Scheithe R, Hrboticky N, Pietsch A, Lorenz R, Siess W. Mildly oxidized LDL induces platelet aggregation through activation of phospholipase A2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995 August Institut für Prophylaxe und Epidemiologie der Kreislaufkrankheiten, University of Munich, Germany.