Antioxidant modulation in restoring mitochondrial function in neurodegeneration.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the leading causes of disability associated with neurodegeneration worldwide. These diseases are influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors and share similar mechanisms as both are characterized by accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins - amyloid-beta (Aβ) in AD and α-synuclein in PD. Over the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathology of these diseases, and the contributions of these defects to the cellular and molecular changes that eventually cause neuronal death have been explored. Using mitochondrial protective agents, such as antioxidants, to combat ROS provides a new strategy for neurodegenerative treatment. In this review, we highlight the potential of multiple types of antioxidants, including vitamins, phytochemicals, fatty acids and minerals, as well as synthetic antioxidants specifically targeting the mitochondria, which can restore mitochondrial function, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders at both the pre-clinical and clinical stages by focusing on AD and PD.
Antioxidant modulation in restoring mitochondrial function in neurodegeneration. Int J Neurosci. 2017 March