Adolescent oligomenorrhea (age 14-19) tracks into the third decade of life (age 20-28) and predicts
Assess whether adolescent oligomenorrhea (age 14-19) tracks into young adulthood (age 20-28) and predicts increased cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and impaired fasting glucose-type II diabetes mellitus (IFG+T2DM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Prospective study of menstrual cyclicity and its metabolic effects in 865 black and white schoolgirls from age 9 to 19, and 605 of these 865 girls from age 20 to 28.
Patterns of menstrual delays (oligomenorrhea) during ages 14-19 and ages 20-28 were closely related (p<.0001). Adolescent menses delay (ages 14-19, p<.0001), mean insulin (ages 20-28, p=.0003), and self-identified polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, p=.049) predicted ages 20-28 menses delay. Menses delays during ages 14-19 and 20-28, and, their interaction product were correlated with IFG+T2DM and MetS at ages 20-28. Waist circumference (ages 20-28, p<.0001), mean triglyceride (ages 20-28, p=.005), and the number of average menstrual cycles≥42 days (ages 20-28, p=.04) predicted IFG+T2DM (ages 20-28). MetS (ages 9-19, p<.0001), mean insulin (ages 20-28, p=.0002), the number of ≥42 day gaps between menstrual periods (ages 20-28, p=.02), and cigarette smoking at age 18-19 (p=.04) were significant explanatory variables for MetS at ages 27-28. As MetS status category changed from age 14-19 to 27-28 from best to worst: (no → no), (yes → no), (yes → yes), (no → yes), the number of women with ≥2 menses delays during ages 20-28 rose from 3% to 4% to 15% to 17%, p=.0001. MetS status change from age 9-19 to 27-28 was positively associated with mean insulin (age 20-28, p<.0001), cigarette smoking (age 24-25, p=.01) and the number of menses delays during ages 20-28 (p=.04).
Menstrual patterns track from adolescence to young adulthood, and oligomenorrhea predicts MetS and IFG+T2DM. Patterns of menses delays in adolescence should be considered as a significant risk factor for future development of young adult IFG+T2DM, MetS, oligomenorrhea, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Adolescent oligomenorrhea (age 14-19) tracks into the third decade of life (age 20-28) and predicts increased cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome