Mangosteen, Fat Cells, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation
The xanthones, - and -mangostin (MG), are major bioactive compounds found in mangosteen and are reported to have antiinflammatory properties in several murine models. Given the association between obesity, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance, we examined the effects of - and -MG on markers of inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of newly differentiated human adipocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). - and -MG decreased the induction by LPS of inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and Toll-like receptor-2. Moreover, - and -MG attenuated LPS activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) c-jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, and p38. - and -MG also attenuated LPS activation of c-Jun and activator protein (AP)-1 activity. -MG was more effective than -MG on an equimolar basis. Furthermore, -MG but not -MG attenuated LPS-mediated IB- degradation and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activity. In addition, -MG prevented the suppression by LPS of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and PPAR- and adiponectin gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MG attenuates LPS-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, possibly by inhibiting the activation of MAPK, NF-B, and AP-1.
Akkarach Bumrungpert, Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Chia-Chi Chuang, Tiffany West, Arion Kennedy, and Michael McIntosh Xanthones from Mangosteen Prevent Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Primary Cultures of Human Adipocytes. J Nutr. 2009 June Department of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.