Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is the antioxidant derived from grape seeds, has been reported to possess a variety of potent properties. We have previously shown that GSPE attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. However the mechanism by which GSPE regulates the immune response remains unclear, although it may involve effects on the regulation of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune arthritis. To clarify this issue, we have assessed the effects of GSPE on differential regulation of Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells subsets in vitro in mouse and human CD4(+) T cells. We observed that GSPE decreased the frequency of IL-17(+)CD4(+)Th17 cells and increased induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)(+) Treg cells. In vivo, GSPE effectively attenuated clinical symptoms of established collagen-induced arthritis in mice with concomitant suppression of IL-17 production and enhancement of Foxp3 expression (type II collagen-reactive Treg cells) in CD4(+) T cells of joints and splenocytes. The presence of GSPE decreased the levels of IL-21, IL-22, IL-26 and IL-17 production by human CD4(+) T cells in a STAT3-dependent manner. In contrast, GSPE induces Foxp3(+) Treg cells in humans. Our results suggest that GSPE possesses a reciprocal control over IL-17 and Foxp3. By potently regulating inflammatory T cell differentiation, GSPE may serve as a possible novel therapeutic agent for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.
Park MK, Park JS, Cho ML, Oh HJ, Heo YJ, Woo YJ, Heo YM, Park MJ, Park HS, Park SH, Kim HY, Min JK. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) differentially regulates Foxp3(+) regulatory and IL-17(+) pathogenic T cell in autoimmune arthritis. Immunol Lett 2010 October The Rheumatism Research Center, Catholic Research Institute of Medical Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.