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weight management and cardiovascular health. It provides high quality nutrients for healthy leptin hormone communication.* No stimulants or hormones. leptinal - The Leptin Helper for cardiovascular health and weight management leptinal nutritional supplement for weight mana...
Protein, please specify in order comments as you checkout. The difference between this package and the Total Support Package is that this contains leptinal instead of the Leptin Control Pack. Package includes:1 - leptinal (90 capsules) 2 - Daily Protein Plus Origin...
$235.95 $176.96
163025. Top supplements for cholesterol metabolism, blood pressure, and circulation* Convenient, on-the-go packets Comprehensive combination of nutrients for cardiovascular health*The LeptiCardio Pack™ contains top cardiovascular health supplements in convenient o...
60 packets $183.00 $146.40
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I have spent more than twenty years on the front lines of clinical nutrition helping thousands of people solve very difficult health problems &...
... . Richards, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist I have spent more than twenty years on the front lines of clinical nutrition helping thousands of people solve very difficult health problems – naturally. In all these years I have never encountered more powerful principles of health than those relating to leptin. Leptin is the king of hormones, the commander and chief of virtually everything that takes place in your body. Understanding how leptin works and applying that information to your day to day life can totally change your health. This is especially true regarding issues of ...
... April 23, 2018| Linda J. Dobberstein, Chiropractor, Board Certified in Clinical Nutrition The hormone leptin was discovered more than 20 years ago. Since that time, a tremendous amount of information has been discovered about leptin and its many effects. Leptin is still at the forefront of metabolic health, but it is far more than that. As scientists unearth leptin's role in other areas, we find that it is intimately involved with inflammation, especially autoimmune inflammation. Too much leptin, leptin resistance, and even too little ...
Commonly, overweight individuals have a majority of the symptoms associated with a hypothyroid-like condition--especially those with a history of ...
... off). And it is partly because many people who are normal weight or underweight also have hypothyroid-like symptoms or hypothyroidism by lab test. I'll explain these paradoxical situations in this article. Numerous discoveries in the past 15 years have proven that problems with the fat hormone leptin are often the primary cause of many of the hypothyroid symptoms in overweight individuals. Discoveries in the past year have elucidated how problems with nerves in the subconscious brain induce thyroid malfunction. These discoveries open a whole new world of possibilities for those struggling with long-standing hypothyroid-like ...

Health Topics

Healthy leptin function is required for healthy bone density. Reduce bone stress, improve leptin hormone communication, increase bone mass. Improv...
... How Leptin Regulates Bone Health The overall function of thyroid hormone in your body is occurring with permission from the big hormone boss, leptin. Not surprisingly, leptin regulation of bone is even more important than thyroid regulation of bone. We now understand that leptin regulates bone in two primary ways: 1) Leptin signals your subconscious brain (hypothalamus) to turn on sympathetic nerves that directly regulate the activity of osteoblasts, acting in synergistic tone with the TSH signal (which is released in the first place with permission from leptin) ...
Wellness Resources Leptin & weight loss supplements help burn fat, balance leptin function, improve energy, and reduce sugar cravings.
... Leptin Weight Management Supplements Leptin is the single most important hormone that regulates your body weight. It is the boss of thyroid hormone, insulin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormones (like cortisol). Understanding leptin and working in harmony with it opens an entire new world of possibilities to maintain and attain optimal metabolic function. Leptin is known as the fat hormone because it is made in your white adipose tissue, or stored fat. Following a meal leptin is released from your fat, enters your blood, and travels to ...
Wellness Resources leptin & weight loss supplements help burn fat, balance leptin function, improve energy, and optimize thyroid function, nat...
... Leptin& Weight Loss Wellness Resources Weight Management Supplements are designed to improve leptin hormone communication, reduce food cravings, increase energy, support healthy thyroid function, and improve blood sugar metabolism. They make getting started on a weight loss program easier and can help you get beyond a weight loss plateau.* Nutritional supplements are tools to use in an overall weight loss program to make weight loss easier, help you stay on track, and overcome obstacles as you try to lose weight. A comprehensive approach is essential for success. ...

Study

Fructose-Induced Leptin Resistance Exacerbates Weight Gain in Response to Subsequent High Fat Feeding
... Study Title: Fructose and Leptin Resistance Study Abstract It has been suggested that increased fructose intake is associated with obesity. We hypothesized that chronic fructose consumption causes leptin resistance, which subsequently may promote the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-free control or 60% fructose diet for six months and then tested for leptin resistance. Half of the rats in each group were then switched to high fat diet for two weeks, while the other half continued on their respective diets. Chronic ...
Leptin Acts via Leptin Receptor-Expressing Lateral Hypothalamic Neurons to Modulate the Mesolimbic Dopamine System and Suppress Feeding.
... Study Title: Leptin, Pleasure, Dopamine, and Eating Study Abstract The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) acts in concert with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other components of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system to control motivation, including the incentive to feed. The anorexigenic hormone leptin modulates the mesolimbic DA system, although the mechanisms underlying this control have remained incompletely understood. We show that leptin directly regulates a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) -expressing inhibitory neurons in the LHA and that leptin action via ...
... Study Title: Dysregulation of leptin signaling in Alzheimer disease: evidence for neuronal leptin resistance.Study Abstract Leptin signaling has received considerable attention in the Alzheimer disease (AD) field. Within the past decade, the peptide hormone has been demonstrated to attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells and to be modulated by amyloid-. Moreover, a role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis within the hippocampus has been shown in animal models. To further characterize the association between leptin signaling and vulnerable regions in AD, we assessed the profile of leptin and ...

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Products

weight management and cardiovascular health. It provides high quality nutrients for healthy leptin hormone communication.* No stimulants or hormones. leptinal - The Leptin Helper for cardiovascular health and weight management leptinal nutritional supplement for weight mana...
Protein, please specify in order comments as you checkout. The difference between this package and the Total Support Package is that this contains leptinal instead of the Leptin Control Pack. Package includes:1 - leptinal (90 capsules) 2 - Daily Protein Plus Origin...
$235.95 $176.96
163025. Top supplements for cholesterol metabolism, blood pressure, and circulation* Convenient, on-the-go packets Comprehensive combination of nutrients for cardiovascular health*The LeptiCardio Pack™ contains top cardiovascular health supplements in convenient o...
60 packets $183.00 $146.40
16314. Most popular weight management supplements in individually-wrapped packets* Improves energy, mood, and motivation* Helps reduce sugar and food cravings* Supports healthy blood sugar metabolism* Supports healthy cholesterol metabolism*The Leptin Control Pack® ...
60 packets $156.00 $124.80
16146. Nourish and protect cell membranes* Strengthen myelin sheathing of nerves* Support healthy nerve transmission*Calcium AEP is a unique type of calcium to help nourish nerves and cell membranes.* Calcium AEP Supplement for Nerves, Cell Membranes, Repair Calcium...
16160. Comprehensive antioxidants* Supports immune function* Provides eye health nutrients* Includes vitamin C, bilberry, lutein, Q10, lycopene Newly enhanced with more lycopene and zeaxanthin Also in the Daily Super Pack 25% off in October!Daily Protector™ is a b...
16162. Support cardiovascular health* Protect skin and promote collagen formation* Improve cholesterol metabolism* Nourish brain and nerves* Support reproductive health* 25% off in October!Daily Super E™ contains tocotrienols, a superior-quality antioxidant form of v...
16163. Highest quality mercury-free fish oil High in the desirable DHA omega-3 oil Supports brain cell health, cardiovascular health, bones, eyes, and mood* Assists weight management* Natural triglyceride (TG) form No-burp, highly absorbable form of fish oil 25% off in...
18898. The Leptin Diet Package is an excellent way to get started on your weight loss program. It is a combination of the best supplements for healthy weight management, super high quality whey protein, and The Leptin Diet book, a key tool for success! This package is a one...
$282.95 $212.21
22471. Supports colon cleansing* Herbal supplement for laxative support* Formerly named Turkey RhubarbMotility Helper™ contains colon cleansing herbs. It helps to clean debris from the colon and helps with occasional constipation.* Motility Helper - Colon Cleansing H...
100 capsules $28.00 $22.40

News

Showing 10 of 643 View all news results >
I have spent more than twenty years on the front lines of clinical nutrition helping thousands of people solve very difficult health problems &...
... . Richards, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist I have spent more than twenty years on the front lines of clinical nutrition helping thousands of people solve very difficult health problems – naturally. In all these years I have never encountered more powerful principles of health than those relating to leptin. Leptin is the king of hormones, the commander and chief of virtually everything that takes place in your body. Understanding how leptin works and applying that information to your day to day life can totally change your health. This is especially true regarding issues of ...
... April 23, 2018| Linda J. Dobberstein, Chiropractor, Board Certified in Clinical Nutrition The hormone leptin was discovered more than 20 years ago. Since that time, a tremendous amount of information has been discovered about leptin and its many effects. Leptin is still at the forefront of metabolic health, but it is far more than that. As scientists unearth leptin's role in other areas, we find that it is intimately involved with inflammation, especially autoimmune inflammation. Too much leptin, leptin resistance, and even too little ...
Commonly, overweight individuals have a majority of the symptoms associated with a hypothyroid-like condition--especially those with a history of ...
... off). And it is partly because many people who are normal weight or underweight also have hypothyroid-like symptoms or hypothyroidism by lab test. I'll explain these paradoxical situations in this article. Numerous discoveries in the past 15 years have proven that problems with the fat hormone leptin are often the primary cause of many of the hypothyroid symptoms in overweight individuals. Discoveries in the past year have elucidated how problems with nerves in the subconscious brain induce thyroid malfunction. These discoveries open a whole new world of possibilities for those struggling with long-standing hypothyroid-like ...
The Leptin Diet® teaches you to maximize your ability to get energy from the food you eat – meaning you can eat less food and f...
... Byron J. Richards, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist The Leptin Diet® teaches you to maximize your ability to get energy from the food you eat – meaning you can eat less food and feel great. It is the first diet based on the science of leptin, and it is an astoundingly simple and common sense way to eat. It is not a fad diet or calorie manipulation – it is simply an eating lifestyle that makes all the difference in the world. Eating in harmony with leptin turns out to be the secret ...
Most people think that hypothyroidism causes obesity. While this can be true, growing evidence demonstrates that elevated leptin causes increased ...
... , Chiropractor, Board Certified in Clinical Nutrition Most people think that hypothyroidism causes obesity. While this can be true, there is another side to the picture. Research is flipping around the binoculars and posing the thyroid-obesity link in a novel manner and it involves the hormone leptin. Over the last few years, growing evidence demonstrates that elevated levels of leptin with other fat cell hormones causes increased susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disorders like Hashimoto's and Grave's disease. Leptin dysfunction, which may or may not be associated with obesity in this focus, ...
A decade ago I recognized the extreme importance of leptin to human health. Leptin is the king of hormones which impacts everything else in your b...
... , Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist Listen to Byron Explain play pause mute unmute Update Required To play the media you will need to either update your browser to a recent version or update your Flash plugin. This Week's Health Podcast A decade ago I recognized the extreme importance of leptin to human health. Leptin is the king of hormones which impacts everything else in your body. My first book on the subject in 2002, Mastering Leptin, was the first translation of highly complex science into readable English for the general public specifically addressing how to ...
I am entering a new term into the lexicon of the weight loss world – metabolic flu. The primary symptom of this problem is abnormal fati...
... problems. This type of fatigue is also associated with difficulty getting energy from a reasonable amount of food and an inability to sustain energy between meals without snacking. Any person who is not able to lose weight and feel better by simply following the Five Rules of the Leptin Diet, eating higher quality food, and getting consistent exercise has some degree of metabolic flu. Many times this issue is cleared up by following the basic guidelines I have given in the articles on The Leptin Diet Weight Loss Challenge. However, as fatigue increases ...
In order to really take charge of leptin you have to actively manage it. Think of leptin as the conductor of your orchestra; will you play beautif...
... Byron J. Richards, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist In order to really take charge of leptin you have to actively manage it. Think of leptin as the conductor of your orchestra; will you play beautiful music or does your body suffer from out of tune noise? If you think about those times when you felt like everything was clicking along – your energy, mood, intelligence, and your feeling of fitness – then those are examples of your conductor doing a good job to pull off an excellent performance. Your body is ...
It used to be thought that osteoarthritis was simply due to wear and tear, trauma, or old age. Science now considers leptin as the link between ob...
... due to wear and tear, trauma, or old age. It isn't that simple. Osteoarthritis can happen even in non-weight bearing joints without overuse or injury. Increasing amounts of evidence shows that non-traumatic induced osteoarthritis is a metabolic disease related to elevated levels of the hormone leptin, disordered metabolism and mitochondrial breakdown. Science considers leptin as the link between obesity and osteoarthritis. This change in understanding has shifted the direction of treatment towards leptin management. What is Leptin? Leptin is the king of hormones, the commander and chief of virtually ...
... April 22, 2018| Wellness Resources Have you noticed your weight creeping up, more fatigue, cravings, and a sluggish metabolism? If you have tried just about every diet with minimal success, leptin is the hormone you need to know about. Leptin comes from fat cells and communicates directly with your brain to tell it how much fat is in storage. It controls energy, appetite, and metabolic rate. Leptin problems are the primary reason for food cravings, overeating, and slow metabolism. Learn how to eat in ...

Health Topics

Healthy leptin function is required for healthy bone density. Reduce bone stress, improve leptin hormone communication, increase bone mass. Improv...
... How Leptin Regulates Bone Health The overall function of thyroid hormone in your body is occurring with permission from the big hormone boss, leptin. Not surprisingly, leptin regulation of bone is even more important than thyroid regulation of bone. We now understand that leptin regulates bone in two primary ways: 1) Leptin signals your subconscious brain (hypothalamus) to turn on sympathetic nerves that directly regulate the activity of osteoblasts, acting in synergistic tone with the TSH signal (which is released in the first place with permission from leptin) ...
Wellness Resources Leptin & weight loss supplements help burn fat, balance leptin function, improve energy, and reduce sugar cravings.
... Leptin Weight Management Supplements Leptin is the single most important hormone that regulates your body weight. It is the boss of thyroid hormone, insulin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormones (like cortisol). Understanding leptin and working in harmony with it opens an entire new world of possibilities to maintain and attain optimal metabolic function. Leptin is known as the fat hormone because it is made in your white adipose tissue, or stored fat. Following a meal leptin is released from your fat, enters your blood, and travels to ...
Wellness Resources leptin & weight loss supplements help burn fat, balance leptin function, improve energy, and optimize thyroid function, nat...
... Leptin& Weight Loss Wellness Resources Weight Management Supplements are designed to improve leptin hormone communication, reduce food cravings, increase energy, support healthy thyroid function, and improve blood sugar metabolism. They make getting started on a weight loss program easier and can help you get beyond a weight loss plateau.* Nutritional supplements are tools to use in an overall weight loss program to make weight loss easier, help you stay on track, and overcome obstacles as you try to lose weight. A comprehensive approach is essential for success. ...
Wellness Resources Leptin Diet weight loss supplements help balance leptin function, improve energy, reduce sugar cravings, and burn fat.
... Basic Leptin Support No simple fix or miracle weight loss pill will ever address the complexity of leptin in your metabolism. Beware of false marketing for any one product making this claim (Many leptin products are out there, all of them riding on our coattails, as we are the original leptin experts). On the other hand, there are many nutrients that beneficially impact leptin-related metabolism. An overall approach, which we call the Leptin Lifestyle, will help you manage your weight in a healthy way over the long term. ...
It is very common that individuals who are overweight have a majority of the symptoms associated with a sluggish thyroid function. This is especia...
... Thyroid, Leptin, and Weight Management It is very common that individuals who are overweight have a majority of the symptoms associated with a sluggish thyroid function. This is especially true for those who have a history of yo-yo dieting or have difficulty losing weight by cutting back on calories and trying to exercise more. Leptin is known as the fat-hormone, as it is made in your white adipose tissue or stored fat. Following a meal leptin is released from your fat, enters your blood, and travels up to your brain delivering ...
Wellness Resources Weight Management supplements, help balance leptin function, improve energy, reduce sugar cravings, and burn fat.
... Basic Leptin Support No simple fix or miracle weight loss pill will ever address the complexity of leptin in your metabolism. Beware of false marketing for any one product making this claim (Many leptin products are out there, all of them riding on our coattails, as we are the original leptin experts). On the other hand, there are many nutrients that beneficially impact leptin-related metabolism. An overall approach, which we call the Leptin Lifestyle, will help you manage your weight in a healthy way over the long term. ...
Wellness Resources Weight Management supplements, help balance leptin function, improve energy, reduce sugar cravings, and burn fat.
... Final Comments on Leptin When using nutrition to support leptin function you are simply trying to nourish your overall leptin system, along with your other systems. This approach falls under the category of assisting the healthy structure and function of your body and is not the treatment or prevention of any disease or medical condition. The topics previously listed are key topics relating to leptin fitness, ranging from the simple to the more complex. Space does not allow a complete discussion of many of the topics, though it may be very important for ...
Aerobic exercise is helpful for fat burning and leptin hormone communication. Incorporate aerobics into your exercise routine when following The L...
... Exercise Tips to Improve Leptin& Fat Burning Aerobics is an excellent fat burning exercise, especially when you are fit enough to do a one hour aerobic session. Of course strength training, stretching, relaxing, walking, and general physical activity are equally important. Aerobic exercise is proven to help curb your appetite. It has been shown to increase BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) levels, thus improving brain rejuvenation and suppressing appetitie. Plus, aerobic exercise increases the amount of active leptin receptors in your body, helping the key ...
Resveratrol is an important nutrient which helps the body form SIRT1 which is helpful for Weight Management and Leptin Resistance problems.
... use as fuel as well as boost your energy so that you have enough energy to hunt for new food. SIRT1 is part of a famine related survival system. It is important to understand that just about everyone who is overweight and having trouble with cravings has high leptin in their blood (leptin resistance), and that leptin is not getting into their brains correctly (a false state of misperceived starvation). Leptin resistance is caused by consistently eating meals that are too large, eating after dinner at night, and snacking. ...
Wellness Resources® provides safe and effective nutritional supplements to support a healthy cholesterol level.
... Leptinal®& Healthy Fat Cells Leptinal® supports cholesterol fitness in a variety of novel ways. Fat cells within stored fat use small fragments of cholesterol to stabilize the structure of their cell membranes. When a person gains weight these fat cells expand in size, stressing the actual structure of the fat cell. The stressed fat cells send out a call to the liver for more cholesterol to help stabilize their cell membranes. Thus, fat cells that are too large contribute to cholesterol unfitness. Losing weight helps this problem. The ...
Fructose-Induced Leptin Resistance Exacerbates Weight Gain in Response to Subsequent High Fat Feeding
... Study Title: Fructose and Leptin Resistance Study Abstract It has been suggested that increased fructose intake is associated with obesity. We hypothesized that chronic fructose consumption causes leptin resistance, which subsequently may promote the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-free control or 60% fructose diet for six months and then tested for leptin resistance. Half of the rats in each group were then switched to high fat diet for two weeks, while the other half continued on their respective diets. Chronic ...
Leptin Acts via Leptin Receptor-Expressing Lateral Hypothalamic Neurons to Modulate the Mesolimbic Dopamine System and Suppress Feeding.
... Study Title: Leptin, Pleasure, Dopamine, and Eating Study Abstract The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) acts in concert with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other components of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system to control motivation, including the incentive to feed. The anorexigenic hormone leptin modulates the mesolimbic DA system, although the mechanisms underlying this control have remained incompletely understood. We show that leptin directly regulates a population of leptin receptor (LepRb) -expressing inhibitory neurons in the LHA and that leptin action via ...
... Study Title: Dysregulation of leptin signaling in Alzheimer disease: evidence for neuronal leptin resistance.Study Abstract Leptin signaling has received considerable attention in the Alzheimer disease (AD) field. Within the past decade, the peptide hormone has been demonstrated to attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells and to be modulated by amyloid-. Moreover, a role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis within the hippocampus has been shown in animal models. To further characterize the association between leptin signaling and vulnerable regions in AD, we assessed the profile of leptin and ...
Local leptin production in osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts may be responsible for their abnormal phenotypic expression
... Study Title: Local leptin production in osteoarthritis and abnormal osteoblast expression Study Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptin is a peptide hormone with a role in bone metabolism and rheumatic diseases. The subchondral bone tissue plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), related to abnormal osteoblast (Ob) differentiation. Although leptin promotes the differentiation of Ob under normal conditions, a role for leptin in OA Ob has not been demonstrated. Here we determined if endogenous leptin produced by OA Ob could be responsible for the expression of the abnormal ...
Effects of leptin on human breast cancer cell lines in relationship to estrogen receptor and HER2 status.
... Study Title: High Leptin Drives Breast Cancer Growth Study Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Leptin, a cytokine synthesized in adipose tissue, has been implicated as a link between obesity and breast cancer. In the present study, the effects of leptin on cell proliferation and proteins associated with leptin signaling and/or breast cell growth were investigated in ER-positive, MCF-7, T47-D and MDA-MB-361, and ER-negative, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3, breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-361 and SK-BR-3 also ...
Reduction of leptin gene expression by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
... Study Title: DHA Helps Lower Levels of Leptin Study Abstract Supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for 6 weeks did not alter plasma leptin concentrations in male smokers. Changes in dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) correlated positively, whereas changes in the intake of PUFA correlated negatively to changes in plasma leptin levels. A 3-week n-3 PUFA-enriched diet, as compared with a 3-week lard-enriched diet, induced lower plasma leptin concentration and reduced leptin mRNA expression in rat epididymal adipose tissue. In the human throphoblast cell line ...
High leptin levels in women developing postpartum thyroiditis.
... Study Title: High leptin levels in women developing postpartum thyroiditis.Study Abstract BACKGROUND: There is experimental evidence that leptin is required for the development of T helper 1 (Th1) -mediated autoimmune diseases. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies demonstrating such a role in human autoimmune thyroid disease. OBJECTIVE: In the present study we have retrospectively examined patients developing postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), as a model of autoimmune disease, for changes in serum leptin levels during the postpartum period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
... Study Title: Evidence for a key role of leptin in osteoarthritis.Study Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of leptin (an adipose tissue-derived hormone) to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), by determining the level of leptin in both synovial fluid (SF) and cartilage specimens obtained from human joints. We also investigated the effect of leptin on cartilage, using intraarticular injections of leptin in rats. METHODS: Leptin levels in SF samples obtained from OA patients undergoing either knee replacement surgery or knee arthroscopy were measured by ...
The effect of leptin on bone: an evolving concept of action.
... Study Title: Leptin, Bones,& Metabolism Study Abstract Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted by adipocytes, is known to regulate food intake but has also emerged as a significant factor in the regulation of bone mass. In humans, states of energy deprivation with low serum leptin have been associated with low bone mass. In mice, leptin deficiency led to increased trabecular bone mass with overall decrease in cortical bone. Leptin regulates bone metabolism indirectly in the hypothalamus thereby activating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In addition to ...
Leptin modulates enteric neurotransmission in the rat proximal colon: an in vitro study.
... Study Title: Leptin modulates enteric neurotransmission in the rat proximal colon: an in vitro study.Study Abstract Leptin has been shown to modulate gastrointestinal functions including nutrient absorption, growth, and inflammation and to display complex effects on gut motility. Leptin receptors have also been identified within the enteric nervous system (ENS), which plays a crucial role in digestive functions. Although leptin has recently been shown to activate neurons in the ENS, the precise mechanisms involved are so far unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study ...

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