Tangeretin and Parkinson's
Tangeretin offers clear protection for dopamine neurons.
Study Title:ATF6alpha promotes astroglial activation and neuronal survival in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the relevance of the UPR in a mouse model of chronic MPTP/probenecid (MPTP/P) injection, which causes severe and persistent degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Enhanced activation of the UPR branches, including ATF6α and PERK/eIF2α/ATF4, was observed after MPTP/P injections into mice. Deletion of the ATF6α gene accelerated neuronal degeneration and ubiquitin accumulation relatively early in the MPTP/P injection course. Surprisingly, astroglial activation was strongly suppressed, and production of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-oxidative genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and xCT, in astrocytes were reduced in ATF6α -/- mice after MPTP/P injections. Decreased BDNF expression in ATF6α -/- mice was associated with decreased expression of GRP78, an ATF6α-dependent molecular chaperone in the ER. Decreased HO-1 and xCT levels were associated with decreased expression of the ATF4-dependent pro-apoptotic gene CHOP. Consistent with these results, administration of the UPR-activating reagent tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4’-pentamethoxyflavone; IN19) into mice enhanced the expression of UPR-target genes in both dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes, and promoted neuronal survival after MPTP/P injections. These results suggest that the UPR is activated in a mouse model of chronic MPTP/P injection, and contributes to the survival of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, in part, through activated astrocytes.
Hashida K, Kitao Y, Sudo H, Awa Y, Maeda S, Mori K, Takahashi R, Iinuma M, Hori O. ATF6alpha promotes astroglial activation and neuronal survival in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2012 October
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