How Fructose Inudces the Metabolic Syndrome
A helpful study explaining how excess frucose consumption can lead to disease.
Study Title:Opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in mice
Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fructose intake also causes features of metabolic syndrome in laboratory animals and humans. The first enzyme in fructose metabolism is fructokinase, which exists as two isoforms, A and C. Here we show that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is prevented in mice lacking both isoforms but is exacerbated in mice lacking fructokinase A. Fructokinase C is expressed primarily in liver, intestine, and kidney and has high affinity for fructose, resulting in rapid metabolism and marked ATP depletion. In contrast, fructokinase A is widely distributed, has low affinity for fructose, and has less dramatic effects on ATP levels. By reducing the amount of fructose for metabolism in the liver, fructokinase A protects against fructokinase C-mediated metabolic syndrome. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which fructose causes obesity and metabolic syndrome.
From press release:
A group of scientists from across the world have come together in a just-published study that provides new insights into how fructose consumption results in obesity and metabolic syndrome, which can lead to diabetes. In this study which was performed in lab animals, researchers found that fructose can be metabolized by an enzyme that exists in two forms. One form appears to be responsible for causing how fructose causes fatty liver, obesity, and insulin resistance. The other form may actually protect animals from developing these features in response to sugar.
Takuji Ishimoto, Miguel A. Lanaspa, MyPhuong T. Le, Gabriela E. Garcia, Christine P. Diggle, Paul S. MacLean, Matthew R. Jackman, Aruna Asipu, Carlos A. Roncal-Jimenez, Tomoki Kosugi, Christopher J. Rivard, Shoichi Maruyama, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe. Opposing effects of fructokinase C and A isoforms on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in mice Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012 March vol. 109 no. 11 4320-4325
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