Hawthorn Protects Circulation from Stress
The ability to reduce human neutrophil elastase (HNE) shows that hawthorn has a potent anti-stress effect in your circulation.
Study Title:In vitro and in vivo studies on the cardioprotective action of oligomeric procyanidins in a Crataegus extract of leaves and blooms.
Cardioprotective effects of a standardized extract from leaves with flowers of Crataegus (WS-1442; content of oligomeric procyandins [OPC]: 18.75%) have recently been demonstrated in an ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. Further studies were now conducted to clarify the mechanism of action and to identify active constituents involved in these effects of WS-1442. Exhausting partitioning between ethyl acetate/water and successive ultrafiltration of the aqueous layer led to the quantitative recovery of three fractions, which were tested for their in vitro radical scavenging (RS) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) inhibitory activity. The lipophilic ethylacetate-soluble fraction A, enriched in flavone derivatives and constituting 14.9% of WS-1442, was as active as WS-1442 in inhibiting HNE. However, its RS activity was only about half that of the primary extract. Although 67.9% of WS-1442 was recovered in a water-soluble low molecular weight fraction B, this fraction displayed only weak RS and HNE inhibiting activity. In contrast, the RS and HNE inhibiting potencies of an essentially flavone-free and OPC-rich fraction C (21.3% of WS-1442) were significantly higher (inhibition of lipid peroxidation: IC50 0.3 microgram/ml; inhibition of HNE: IC50 0.84 microgram/ml) as those of WS-1442. The RS and HNE inhibitory activities of the extract and those of its fractions correlated well with their OPC-content but not with their concentration of flavonols. These results demonstrate that OPCs of Crataegus extracts possess stronger radical scavenging activities than flavone derivatives or other constituents. In addition, the oligomeric components are potent inhibitors of HNE. Oral administration of 20 mg/kg/d of the OPC-rich fraction C to rats afforded similar protection against ischemia-reperfusion induced pathologies as treatment with WS-1442 at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d. These observations indicate that radical scavenging and elastase inhibitory activities could indeed be involved in the observed cardioprotective effects of WS-1442, and demonstrate that OPCs are major orally active constituents of WS-1442. Thus, Crataegus extracts used therapeutically for cardiovascular diseases should be analyzed and standardized for their OPC-content.
Chatterjee SS, Koch E, Jaggy H, Krzeminski T. In vitro and in vivo studies on the cardioprotective action of oligomeric procyanidins in a Crataegus extract of leaves and blooms. Arzneimittelforschung. 1997 July 47(7):821-5.
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