Estrogen Replacement and Ovarian Cancer
More widespread damage by the medical profession.
Study Title:Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer
Context Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration.
Objective To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies.
Design and Setting Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates.
Participants A total of 909 946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy.
Main Outcome Measure Ovarian cancer.
Results In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian cancers, of which 2681 were epithelial cancers, were detected. Compared with women who never took hormone therapy, current users of hormones had incidence rate ratios for all ovarian cancers of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.51) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.30-1.58) for epithelial ovarian cancer. The risk declined with years since last use: 0 to 2 years, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46); more than 2 to 4 years, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.75-1.28); more than 4 to 6 years, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.50-1.05), and more than 6 years, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41-0.96). For current users the risk of ovarian cancer did not differ significantly with different hormone therapies or duration of use. The incidence rates in current and never users of hormones were 0.52 and 0.40 per 1000 years, respectively, ie, an absolute risk increase of 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01-0.17) per 1000 years. This approximates 1 extra ovarian cancer for roughly 8300 women taking hormone therapy each year.
Conclusion Regardless of the duration of use, the formulation, estrogen dose, regimen, progestin type, and route of administration, hormone therapy was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
From press release:
Compared with women who have never taken hormone therapy, those who currently take it or who have taken it in the past are at increased risk of ovarian cancer, regardless of the duration of use, the formulation, estrogen dose, regimen or route of administration, according to a new study.
Primary prevention of ovarian cancer is challenging because little is known about its cause. Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT), according to background information in the article. Data have been limited on the differing effects of formulations, regimens and routes of administration.
Lina Steinrud Mørch, M.Sc., of Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, Denmark, and colleagues conducted a study to examine the risk of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy use. The study included all Danish women age 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through linkage to Danish national registers. Prescription data from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated information on HT use. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. The analysis included a total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or who had not had both ovaries removed. At the end of follow-up, 63 percent of the women had not been taking HT, 22 percent were previous users of hormones, and 9 percent current users of hormones. Among the current users, 46 percent had used hormones for more than 7 years.
During an average of 8 years of follow-up, 3,068 ovarian cancers were detected . Of these, 2,681 were epithelial tumors (a type of ovarian cancer). Compared with never users, current users of HT had an overall 38 percent increased risk of ovarian cancer. When restricting the analyses to epithelial ovarian cancer, the relative risk among current HT users was 44 percent higher, with previous HT users having a 15 percent increased risk compared with women who had never used HT. The risk for ovarian cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer did not increase significantly with increasing durations of HT.
The risk of ovarian cancer declined with longer time since last HT use. The risk of ovarian cancer did not differ significantly by formulation, regimen, type of progestin or route of administration.
The absolute risk indicated approximately 1 extra ovarian cancer for roughly 8,300 women taking hormone therapy each year. “If this association is causal, use of hormones has resulted in roughly 140 extra cases of ovarian cancer in Denmark over the mean follow-up of 8 years, i.e., 5 percent of the ovarian cancers in this study. Even though this share seems low, ovarian cancer remains highly fatal, so accordingly this risk warrants consideration when deciding whether to use HT,” the authors write.
Lina Steinrud Mørch, MSc; Ellen Løkkegaard, MD, PhD; Anne Helms Andreasen, MSc; Susanne Krüger-Kjær, MD, DrMSci; Øjvind Lidegaard, MD, DrMSci. Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer JAMA 2009 July 302(3):298-305.
Related Entries: Body Clocks and Weight Management – It’s All About Timing
Saturated Fat Myth – Debunked Again
Powerful Nutrition for Common Chemical Exposures
Endocrine Disruptor Compounds and Natural Solutions
Endocrine Disruptor Compounds and Your Hormones
Low Blood Pressure Linked with Brain Atrophy
Vitamin K, Leptin, AGEs, and Arthritis
Advanced Solutions for Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis: Good Oils versus Bad Oils and Inflammation
High Levels of Omega 6 Fatty Acids Found in Bones of Osteoarthritis Patients Worsens Joint Breakdown
Lipoic Acid Protects the Heart and Immune System from Acute Emotional Stress
Whiplash, Thyroid, and Adrenals
Brain Inflammation Now Documented in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Brain Protective Effects of Proathocyanidins
Nutrient Highlight: Discover the Best Form of Folate
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Offset Gene Weaknesses that Cause Macular Degeneration
Lycopene Builds Its Anti-Prostate Cancer Case
Carotenes Improve the Quality of Semen
Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin Repairs Nerves & Lowers Pain
Folic Acid Activates Neural Stem Cells for Brain Rejuvenation
Chromium Improves Insulin Function & Reduces Binge Eating
How Fiber and Niacin Protect Against Colon Inflammation and Cancer
Berries Have Anti-Aging Impact on Immune System
Strawberries Reduce Cardiovascular Risk
Friendly Flora Improves Fatty Liver Disease
Flavonoid Intake Improves Cardio Health in At-Risk Men
Polyphenols and Essential Fatty Acids Reduce Cardio Risk in Overweight People
Vitamin C Reduces the Risk for Hemorrhagic Stroke
Testosterone Therapy Increases Heart Attack Risk
Magnesium Intake Linked to Lower Cardiovascular Inflammation
Q10 Boosts Energy, Nerves, Muscles & Metabolism
Coenzyme Q10 Remarkably Improves Circulation
Tyrosine Helps Maintain Mental Ability Under Stress
Green Tea Extract Lowers Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Blood Sugar & Inflammation
Poor Flexibility is a Sign of Stiff Arteries
A Sluggish Lymph System Causes Snoring & Sleep Apnea
DHA is Vital to Cardiovascular Wellness
Magnesium Supplements Lower Blood Pressure, Prevent Calcification
Magnesium for the Prevention of Heart Disease
Pomegranate Protects HDL Cholesterol from Damage
Pomegranate Blocks Flu Replication
Tocotrienols: Twenty Years of Dazzling Cardiovascular and Cancer Research
Is Resveratrol the Fountain of Youth?
Grape Seed Extract Lowers Blood Pressure
Scientists Tout Resveratrol as a Primary Nutrient for Cardio Health
Leptin, Thyroid, and Weight Loss
Excess Appetite Causes Abdominal Fat
Low Energy? Detect Thyroid Related Fatigue
Curcumin Boosts AMPK Activation, Prevents Fatty Liver
Quercetin Activates Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Quercetin Guards Against Inflammation-Induced Bone Loss
Head Injuries Double or Triple the Risk of Early Death
Fatty Fish Consumption Lowers the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by 33%
Flavonoids Continue to Show Potent Diabetes Prevention
Vitamin K2 Decreases Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women
Cissus Quadrangularis Enhances Fracture Healing
Cissus Quadrangularis Reduces Exercise-Related Joint Pain
Nobiletin and Tangeretin Help Protect Against Bone Loss
Nobiletin and Tangeretin Inhibit Respiratory Virus
Oregano Oil Inhibits Biofilm Formation
Bromelain Helps Chronic Sinus Inflammation
Curcumin Demonstrates Potent Anti-Flu Properties
Quercetin Protects Brain and Body from Low Oxygen Stress
Ubiquinol Q10 Protects Against Magnified Tissue Injury
Ubiquinol Q10 Protects Eyes of Diabetic Patients
Limonene Promotes Healing of Digestive Lining
Magnesium Intake Reduces Mortality
Fiber is Vital for Cardio Health
Friendly Flora Boosts Weight Loss in Obese Women
Tocotrienols Help Correct Fatty Liver in Humans
Vitamin E Boosts Quality of Life for Alzheimer’s Patients
Astaxanthin Demonstrates Brain Protection & Rejuvenation
Top 10 Health Stories of 2013
Resveratrol’s Amazing Anti-Aging Effect on Circulation
Grape Seed Extract Normalizes Blood Pressure in Mild Hypertension Patients
Don’t Let Bacterial Infections Set Up Shop
Viral Replication Fueled by Sugar
Anti-Vitamin Propaganda Hits a Fever Pitch
Antacid Medications Cause Vitamin B12 Deficiency, Speed Aging
Men Should Take Folic Acid Prior to Conception to Prevent Birth Defects
Exercise Potently Reduces the Risk for Diseases of Aging
Fisetin Demonstrates Potent Bone Protection Properties
Green Tea (EGCG) Improves Body Weight and Autoimmune Arthritis
Low Midlife Iron Contributes to Declining Cognitive Function in Women
DHA Reduces Inflammation in Brains of Alzheimer’s Patients
Low Magnesium Linked to Poor Vitamin D Status
Vitamin D Lowers Depression and Nerve Pain in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Adequate Vitamin D is Needed to Prevent Brain Damage
Nutrition Makes Anti-Aging Possible: Secrets of Your Telomeres
Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Lipoic Acid Rejuvenate Stressed Mitochondria
Low DHA and EPA Linked to Major Depression and Anxiety
Higher Dose DHA and EPA Reduce Infection Toxins
DHA and EPA Help People with Dry Eye Syndrome
Tocotrienol E Supports Bone Health
Antioxidants and Magnesium Linked to Better Hearing
Bovine Lactoferrin Anti-Flu Properties
Olive Leaf Extract Improves Blood Sugar Metabolism
Bovine Colostrum’s Potent Immune-Support Activity
EPA and DHA Boost Mental Health Scores in Healthy Adults
Most Popular News:
Connect with Wellness Resources: