Vitamin K2 is Inversely Associated with Diabetes Risk
This is a rather powerful finding.
Study Title:Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.
Objectives: To investigate whether dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intake are related to risk of type 2 diabetes.
Research Design & Methods: We used data of a prospective cohort study in 38,094 Dutch men and women, aged 20 to 70 years. Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes cases were mainly ascertained via self report and verified against medical records.
Results: During 10.3 years follow-up, 918 incident diabetes cases were documented. In a multivariate model adjusting for diabetes risk factors and dietary factors, phylloquinone intake tended to be associated (p=0.08) with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a hazard ratio of 0.81 (95%-CI: 0.66-0.99) for the highest versus the lowest quartile. For menaquinones intake, a linear, inverse association (p=0.038) with risk of type 2 diabetes was observed with a hazard ratio of 0.93 (0.87-1.00) for each 10 mug increment in the multivariate model.
Conclusion: This study shows that both phylloquinone and menaquinones intake may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
From press release:
Increased intakes of vitamin K may reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes, says a new study with almost 40,000 Dutch men and women.
For every increase of 10 micrograms of vitamin K2 intake the risk of type-2 diabetes was reduced by 7 percent, according to findings published in Diabetes Care.
Correlation does not prove causality however and more research is clearly needed to explore the potential benefits of a vitamin K-rich diet in reducing the risk of type-2 diabetes, a disease that affects almost 24 million Americans, equal to 8 percent of the population. The total costs are thought to be as much as $174 billion, with $116 billion being direct costs from medication, according to 2005-2007 American Diabetes Association figures.
Researchers from the University Medical Center Utrecht and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment report that vitamin K1 intakes “tended to be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes”. This link was not statistically significant, however.
There are two main forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone, also known as phytonadione, (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamins K2). K1 is found in green leafy vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli and spinach, and makes up about 90 per cent of the vitamin K in a typical Western diet; while K2, which makes up about 10 per cent of Western vitamin K consumption and can be synthesised in the gut by microflora.
Led by Joline Beulens, the researchers analysed data from 38,094 Dutch people aged between 20 and 70. Food frequency questionnaires were used to evaluate dietary intakes of phylloquinone and menaquinones.
During 10.3 years of study, the researchers documented 918 people developed diabetes. After crunching the numbers, it was calculated that for each 10 microgram increase in menaquinone intake, the risk of developing type-2 diabetes by 7 per cent.
Previously, researchers from America, Canada and Britain reported in the journal Cell that vitamin K may have an effect on diabetes development via the vitamin K-dependant protein osteocalcin. The study with mice looked at genes that operate primarily in the bone cells that are linked to glucose metabolism.
By “knocking out” these genes in mice so that they could not function, the animals lacking a functional osteocalcin gene gained fat, showing that osteocalcin helps regulate the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas and release it into the bloodstream.
However, such a mechanism was dismissed by scientists from the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University in 2008. Sarah Booth and co-workers noted that men in vitamin K group actually had less of the functional osteocalcin than men in the placebo group.
“It is plausible,” they stated in Diabetes Care (Vol. 31, pp. 2092-2096), “that vitamin K may improve insulin sensitivity through suppression of inflammation. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin K reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.
“More recently, it was reported that biochemical and dietary measures of vitamin K status were inversely associated with inflammatory markers in an observational study,” they said.
Beulens JW, van der A DL, Grobbee DE, Sluijs I, Spijkerman AM, van der Schouw YT. Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 April
Related Entries: Master Enzyme Switch Deactivated In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia
Cinnamon Provides Impressive Benefits for Blood Sugar, Heart Health, Inflammation and More
Gastric Bypass Nutritional Consequences
Toxic Mineral Linked with Bowel Inflammation, Mitochondrial Damage, and Alzheimer’s
Magnesium and Vitamin B1 - Team Players Needed for Brain, Muscles, Metabolism, and More
Vitamin B1 / Thiamin - Are you getting enough?
H. Pylori and Autoimmune Link
Common Medications That Rob the Body of Nutrients
The Many Faces of Gluten Intolerance
Supplement Quality - Are You Getting What’s On the Label?
Statin Drugs Cause Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure
Heart Disease and Depression: A Two Way Street
Broken Heart Syndrome
Ten Things that Interfere with Thyroid Function
Vaccine Injury with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia
Bone Loss Caused by Thyroid Meds and Other Drugs
Five Key Tips for a Healthy 2015
Top Health Stories of 2014
Combat the Winter Blues
Carnosine – Amazing Benefits for Athletes, Heart, Brain, Eyes, and Diabetes
ADT Prostate Cancer Therapy Does More Harm Than Good
Musicians: A Note on Taking Care of the Body
Infections Linked to Autoimmune Thyroid Problems
Noni: Tropical Super Fruit – Powerful Support for the Immune System, Brain, Bones, and more
Enlarged Adenoids Linked with Food Allergies
Combat Ear Infections and Congestion Naturally
Glaucoma: Protecting Against a Silent, Devastating Disorder
Protect and Energize Your Immune System
GMOs, Roundup, and Sunscreen Linked with Diminished Brain Resiliency
Signs of Concussions and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Sleep – Molecular Clean Up Time for the Brain
Artificial Sweeteners Provoke High Risk for Diabetes
Hypothyroidism, Brain Stress, and Season Changes
Alcohol, Adolescents, and Young Adults – A Neurological Disaster Waiting to Happen
GABA: Managing Brain Stimulation, Anxiety, and Other Consequences
Brain Fatigue: Fundamental Solutions
Brain Fatigue 101
Astonishing Benefits of Cranberries
Summer Heat Stress – More Than Just Dehydration
Chronic Active Epstein Barr Virus: Additional Tools for the Battle
Pine Nut Oil Reduces Inflammation, Clotting Risk, and Fatty Liver Congestion
New Findings with Epstein Barr Virus: The Sleeping Giant
Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factor Alert
Disrupted Gut Clocks Linked with IBS, GERD, Obesity, and Other GI Concerns
Body Clocks and Weight Management – It’s All About Timing
Saturated Fat Myth – Debunked Again
Powerful Nutrition for Common Chemical Exposures
Endocrine Disruptor Compounds and Natural Solutions
Endocrine Disruptor Compounds and Your Hormones
Low Blood Pressure Linked with Brain Atrophy
Vitamin K, Leptin, AGEs, and Arthritis
Advanced Solutions for Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis: Good Oils versus Bad Oils and Inflammation
High Levels of Omega 6 Fatty Acids Found in Bones of Osteoarthritis Patients Worsens Joint Breakdown
Lipoic Acid Protects the Heart and Immune System from Acute Emotional Stress
Whiplash, Thyroid, and Adrenals
Brain Inflammation Now Documented in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Brain Protective Effects of Proathocyanidins
Nutrient Highlight: Discover the Best Form of Folate
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Offset Gene Weaknesses that Cause Macular Degeneration
Lycopene Builds Its Anti-Prostate Cancer Case
Carotenes Improve the Quality of Semen
Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin Repairs Nerves & Lowers Pain
Folic Acid Activates Neural Stem Cells for Brain Rejuvenation
Chromium Improves Insulin Function & Reduces Binge Eating
How Fiber and Niacin Protect Against Colon Inflammation and Cancer
Berries Have Anti-Aging Impact on Immune System
Strawberries Reduce Cardiovascular Risk
Friendly Flora Improves Fatty Liver Disease
Flavonoid Intake Improves Cardio Health in At-Risk Men
Polyphenols and Essential Fatty Acids Reduce Cardio Risk in Overweight People
Vitamin C Reduces the Risk for Hemorrhagic Stroke
Testosterone Therapy Increases Heart Attack Risk
Magnesium Intake Linked to Lower Cardiovascular Inflammation
Q10 Boosts Energy, Nerves, Muscles & Metabolism
Coenzyme Q10 Remarkably Improves Circulation
Tyrosine Helps Maintain Mental Ability Under Stress
Green Tea Extract Lowers Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Blood Sugar & Inflammation
Poor Flexibility is a Sign of Stiff Arteries
A Sluggish Lymph System Causes Snoring & Sleep Apnea
DHA is Vital to Cardiovascular Wellness
Magnesium Supplements Lower Blood Pressure, Prevent Calcification
Magnesium for the Prevention of Heart Disease
Pomegranate Protects HDL Cholesterol from Damage
Pomegranate Blocks Flu Replication
Tocotrienols: Twenty Years of Dazzling Cardiovascular and Cancer Research
Is Resveratrol the Fountain of Youth?
Grape Seed Extract Lowers Blood Pressure
Scientists Tout Resveratrol as a Primary Nutrient for Cardio Health
Most Popular News:
Connect with Wellness Resources: